Periodontal disease

Teeth support tissues are:

  • Gums (soft tissue);
  • Maxillary bone (hard tissue).

Periodontitis (periodontal disease) or commonly called periodontosis, is one of the most common diseases of the human species.

boala parodontala si pierdere os1
boala parodontala si pierdere os2

Periodontal disease (periodontitis) represents a chronic inflammatory disorder of teeth sustaining tissues, meaning gum or bone. When inflammation is limited to the gum level, disorder is called gingivitis, and if this stage was surpassed and inflammation reached bone we are talking about periodontosis or periodontitis (the term periodontosis was used in the past). Literally, periodontitis means “around the tooth”. In conclusion, this disease affects gums as well as bone: it is resorbed (melted) and gum follows bone by retracting or remaining in position, even if bone is resorbed.

stadii si progresie boala parodontala

Main causes for periodontitis development are: pathogenic agents (PA bacteria), genetic predisposition given by the immune system, poor oral hygiene, smoking, systemic diseases and stress.

Untreated, periodontal disease can lead in teeth loss. It can affect a single tooth, several teeth or all teeth.


Statistically, periodontal disease represents the main cause of teeth loss and can be associated with other chronic diseases including diabetes and cardiac disorders.

Main cause for periodontal disease is the bacterial plaque that thin, sticky, colorless or yellowish film constantly formed at the tooth base that causes gum inflammation. If it is not removed daily by brushing in the morning and evening, bacterial plaque under the action of saliva minerals hardens and forms scale. Scale cannot be removed just by a simple brushing but requires special instruments and devices specific for a dental prophylaxis office.


Bacterial plaque contains mainly food waste and bacteria (called periodontal bacteria). Although these periodontal bacteria are normally present inside the mouth, they become dangerous when appropriate conditions for their multiplication are installed, allowing a dramatic increase in their number. This happens when patient doesn’t regularly brush his teeth and in consequence food waste and bacteria build up excessively. This phenomenon takes place also when patient brushes daily but improperly, and bacteria builds up in hardly accessible areas, between the teeth or under works, where the toothbrush is out of reach and dental floss or other modern and efficient oral hygiene instruments become necessary.


The main sign of periodontal disease is gum inflammation that occurs as a body response by his defense system (immune) to the toxin attack from bacteria building up on the teeth, close to gums. Therefore, gum:

  • Becomes red,
  • Swells,
  • Bleeds during brushing.

This immune response of the body, resulted from inflammation, can cause severe damage when bacterial plaque or scale are not periodically removed because inflammation advances in depth and destroys the periodontal ligament (fire unit connecting both gum and bone to the tooth) and tooth sustaining tissue.

By the destruction of bone, tooth support is weakened being permanently subjected to mechanical forces during mastication, reaching to becoming mobile and eventually lost.


Periodontal disease usually evolves slowly, for many years, without significant pain. This is why many patients ignore or neglect small signs allowing periodontal disease to advance towards more severe forms, when doctors are not able to do much. Therefore, regular dentist checkups hold a major importance in early prevention and detection of the periodontal disease stage, so it can be properly treated with minimum effort and expenses.

Along with locally generalized damage, inside the oral cavity, strong pathogenic microbes involved in disease emergence and development can migrate at distance, causing other organ disorders with disruption of normal body mechanisms, especially immune.

Through blood flow, recalled aggressive microbes can reach and generate serious disorders in other organs such as: heart, liver, brain, etc. They are frequently contributing, along with blood flow residues, in blocking blood vessels and causing strokes.


During meals, when swallowing, a large part of these microbes reach the digestive tract where it is not entirely clear whether or not they pass through the acid secretions.

Through breathing, many of these pathogen agents are aspired into lungs causing pulmonary disorders.

There are clear studies proving that periodontal disease and diabetes are mutually maintained and reinforced.


It is good to know that a pregnant woman must check her teeth and gum status before getting pregnant. Periodontal disease for pregnant women can negatively influence pregnancy as well as birth.


In conclusion, it is advised to pay attention to oral hygiene at home, according with the professional instructions you will receive in our clinics and to follow up regular professional hygiene, every 6 months or every 3 months for smokers.